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Journal Articles Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Year : 2022

Storm surge hazard over Bengal delta: a probabilistic-deterministic modelling approach

Abstract

Storm-surge-induced coastal inundation constitutes a substantial threat to lives and properties along the vast coastline of the Bengal delta. Some of the deadliest cyclones in history made landfall in the Bengal delta region claiming more than half a million lives over the last five decades. Complex hydrodynamics and observational constraints have hindered the understanding of the risk of storm surge flooding of this low-lying (less than 5 m above mean sea level), densely populated (> 150 million) mega-delta. Here, we generated and analysed a storm surge database derived from a large ensemble of 3600 statistically and physically consistent synthetic storm events and a high-resolution storm surge modelling system. The storm surge modelling system is developed based on a custom high-accuracy regional bathymetry enabling us to estimate the surges with high confidence. From the storm surge dataset, we performed a robust probabilistic estimate of the storm surge extremes. Our ensemble estimate shows that there is a diverse range of water level extremes along the coast and the estuaries of the Bengal delta, with well-defined regional patterns. We confirm that the risk of inland storm surge flooding at a given return period is firmly controlled by the presence of coastal embankments and their height. We also conclude that about 10 % of the coastal population is living under the exposure of a 50-year return period inundation under current climate scenarios. In the face of ongoing climate change, which is likely to worsen the future storm surge hazard, we expect our flood maps to provide relevant information for coastal infrastructure engineering, risk zoning, resource allocation, and future research planning.
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insu-03867915 , version 1 (23-11-2022)

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Md Jamal Uddin Khan, Fabien Durand, Kerry Emanuel, Yann Krien, Laurent Testut, et al.. Storm surge hazard over Bengal delta: a probabilistic-deterministic modelling approach. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2022, 22, pp.2359-2379. ⟨10.5194/nhess-22-2359-2022⟩. ⟨insu-03867915⟩
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