Primary Sulfate Is the Dominant Source of Particulate Sulfate during Winter in Fairbanks, Alaska - INSU - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers Access content directly
Journal Articles ACS ES&T Air Year : 2024

Primary Sulfate Is the Dominant Source of Particulate Sulfate during Winter in Fairbanks, Alaska

Slimane Bekki

Abstract

Within and surrounding high-latitude cities, poor air quality disturbs Arctic ecosystems, influences the climate, and harms human health. The Fairbanks North Star Borough has wintertime particulate matter (PM) concentrations that exceed the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) threshold for public health. Particulate sulfate (SO 4 2−) is the most abundant inorganic species and contributes approximately 20% of the total PM mass in Fairbanks, but air quality models underestimate observed sulfate concentrations. Here we quantify sulfate sources using sizeresolved δ 34 S(SO 4 2−), δ 18 O(SO 4 2−), and Δ 17 O(SO 4 2−) of particulate sulfate in Fairbanks from January 18th to February 25th, 2022 using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. Primary sulfate contributes 62 ± 12% of the total sulfate mass on average. Most primary sulfate is found in the size bin with a particle diameter < 0.7 μm, which contains 90 ±5% of total sulfate mass and poses the greatest risk to human health. Oxidation by all secondary formation pathways combined contributes 38 ± 12% of total sulfate mass on average, indicating that secondary sulfate formation is inefficient in this cold, dark environment. On average, the dominant secondary sulfate formation pathways are oxidation by H 2 O 2 (13 ± 6%), O 3 (8 ± 4%), and NO 2 (8 ± 3%). These findings will inform mitigation strategies to improve air quality and public health in Fairbanks and possibly other high-latitude urban areas during winter.
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Dates and versions

insu-04322354 , version 1 (04-12-2023)

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Allison Moon, Ursula Jongebloed, Kayane K Dingilian, Andrew J Schauer, Yuk-Chun Chan, et al.. Primary Sulfate Is the Dominant Source of Particulate Sulfate during Winter in Fairbanks, Alaska. ACS ES&T Air, 2024, 1 (3), pp.139-149. ⟨10.1021/acsestair.3c00023⟩. ⟨insu-04322354⟩
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