Structurally-controlled hydrothermal alteration in the syntectonic Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu Alkaline Plutonic Complex (Burundi): Implications for REE and HFSE mobilities - INSU - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers Access content directly
Journal Articles Precambrian Research Year : 2015

Structurally-controlled hydrothermal alteration in the syntectonic Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu Alkaline Plutonic Complex (Burundi): Implications for REE and HFSE mobilities

Abstract

The Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu Alkaline Plutonic Complex (URAPC), Burundi, is located along the western branch of the East African Rift. It comprises oversaturated and undersaturated syenites and a shallow level carbonatite body (the Matongo carbonatite) that does not outcrop but has been sampled by drill-cores. The elliptic map contour of the URAPC points to a syntectonic emplacement. Large shear zones that were active during magmatic emplacement have accommodated a regional NE-SW shortening. Mineralization features of late-magmatic to hydrothermal origin are associated with the carbonatite, which, by itself, contains a dense network of calcitic veins. HFSE mineralization occurring as zircon and ilmenite megacrysts can be found in an area of intense and extensive K-fenitization, which lead to the transformation of the surrounding syenite into a dominant K-feldspar + biotite mineral assemblage (Inamvumvu area). Carbonatitic dykes (overprinted by a hydrothermal alteration) are present a few kilometers north of the Matongo carbonatite, within highly deformed zones in the syenite. These dykes occur along with Na-fenites (resulting from the transformation of the feldspathoidal syenite into an albite-dominant paragenesis) and are enriched in REE-minerals (monazite and ancylite-(Ce)). Many magmatic (pegmatoid) dykes and hydrothermal (quartz + hematite) veins also occur in shear zones in the URAPC. Most of them can be interpreted as tension gashes. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of some carbonatite whole rock samples are highly disturbed, in relation to post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration. The HFSE and REE distribution in the minerals from the hydrothermal veins/dykes (calcitic veins within the carbonatite, carbonatite dykes overprinted by a hydrothermal alteration in deformed zones, and zircon and ilmenite megacrysts) attests for a complex behaviour of REE during alteration. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of the Matongo carbonatite and the carbonatitic dykes have a magmatic signature, with 7.2 < δ18O (vs. SMOW) < 8.5‰ and -4.7 < δ13C (vs. PDB) < -5.4‰ in agreement with the Sr isotopic composition. The oxygen isotope composition of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts (δ18OZr = 4 to 4.7‰, δ18OIlm = -4.3 to -1.5‰ respectively) also point to a magmato-hydrothermal origin of the forming fluids. Some samples of the Matongo carbonatite and the carbonatitic dykes, with high δ18O values (δ18O = 8.6 to 21.8‰), show evidence of a medium- to low-temperature hydrothermal alteration event by an aqueous fluid. Calcitic veins in the carbonatite record another alteration event, outlined by the co-variation of δ18O and δ13C values (δ18O = 16.3 to 24.7‰ and δ13C = -4.7 to 0.2‰), implying the involvement of a mixed H2O-CO2 fluid. As a whole, the circulation of fluids in the URAPC was initiated during magmatic emplacement and the geometry of this circulation was controlled by the syn-emplacement crustal scale shear zones. Element mobility, one expression of which being the mineralization features described here, follow the same scheme.
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insu-01186043 , version 1 (24-08-2015)

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Sophie Decrée, Philippe Boulvais, Corentin Cobert, Jean-Marc Baele, Gilbert Midende, et al.. Structurally-controlled hydrothermal alteration in the syntectonic Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu Alkaline Plutonic Complex (Burundi): Implications for REE and HFSE mobilities. Precambrian Research, 2015, 269, pp.281-295. ⟨10.1016/j.precamres.2015.08.016⟩. ⟨insu-01186043⟩
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