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Journal Articles Journal of Geophysical Research : Solid Earth Year : 2013

Generation of continental rifts, basins, and swells by lithosphere instabilities

Abstract

Continents may be affected simultaneously by rifting, uplift, volcanic activity, and basin formation in several different locations, suggesting a common driving mechanism that is intrinsic to continents. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant blocks of finite size that became unstable due to cooling from above. Dynamical behavior depends on three dimensionless numbers, a Rayleigh number for the unstable block, a buoyancy number that scales the intrinsic density contrast to the thermal one, and the aspect ratio of the block. Within the block, instability develops in two different ways in an outer annulus and in an interior region. In the outer annulus, upwellings and downwellings take the form of periodically spaced radial spokes. The interior region hosts the more familiar convective pattern of polygonal cells. In geological conditions, such instabilities should manifest themselves as linear rifts striking at a right angle to the continent-ocean boundary and an array of domal uplifts, volcanic swells, and basins in the continental interior. Simple scaling laws for the dimensions and spacings of the convective structures are derived. For the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, these dimensions take values in the 500-1000 km range, close to geological examples. The large intrinsic buoyancy of Archean lithospheric roots prevents this type of instability, which explains why the widespread volcanic activity that currently affects Western Africa is confined to post-Archean domains.
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Dates and versions

insu-02927632 , version 1 (11-11-2020)

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Loïc Fourel, Laura Milelli, Claude Jaupart, Angela Limare. Generation of continental rifts, basins, and swells by lithosphere instabilities. Journal of Geophysical Research : Solid Earth, 2013, 118 (6), pp.3080-3100. ⟨10.1002/jgrb.50218⟩. ⟨insu-02927632⟩
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