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Book Sections Year : 2020

The Cretaceous Period

A.S. Gale
  • Function : Author
J. Mutterlose
  • Function : Author
F.M. Gradstein
  • Function : Author
F.P. Agterberg
  • Function : Author
J.G. Ogg
  • Function : Author
M.R. Petrizzo
  • Function : Author


The breakup of the former Pangea supercontinent culminated in the modern drifting continents. Increased rifting caused the establishment of the Atlantic Ocean in the middle Jurassic and significant widening in Cretaceous. An explosion of calcareous nannoplankton and foraminifers in the warm seas created massive chalk deposits. A surge in submarine volcanic activity enhanced supergreenhouse conditions in the middle Cretaceous with high CO2 concentrations. Angiosperm plants bloomed on the dinosaur-dominated land during late Cretaceous. The Cretaceous dramatically ended with an asteroid impact, which resulted in a mass extinction.


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Dates and versions

insu-03097855 , version 1 (05-01-2021)



A.S. Gale, J. Mutterlose, Sietske Batenburg, F.M. Gradstein, F.P. Agterberg, et al.. The Cretaceous Period. Geologic Time Scale 2020, 2, Elsevier, pp.1023-1086, 2020, ⟨10.1016/B978-0-12-824360-2.00027-9⟩. ⟨insu-03097855⟩
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