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Journal Articles Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics Year : 2002

Vertical ozone distribution characteristics deduced from ∼ 44,000 re-evaluated Umkehr profiles (1957-2000)


Umkehr observations taken during the 1957-2000 period at 15 stations located between 19 and 52°N have been reanalyzed using a significantly improved algorithm-99, developed by DeLuisi and Petropavlovskikh et al. (2000a,b). The alg-99 utilizes new latitudinal and seasonally dependent first guess ozone and temperature profiles, new vector radiative transfer code, complete aerosol corrections, gravimetric corrections, and others. Before reprocessing, all total ozone values as well as the N-values (radiance) readings were thoroughly re-evaluated. For the first time, shifts in the N-values were detected and provisionally corrected. The re-evaluated Umkehr data set was validated against satellite and ground based measurements. The retrievals with alg-99 show much closer agreement with the lidar and SAGE than with the alg-92. Although the latitudinal coverage is limited, this Umkehr data set contains 44,000 profiles and represent the longest ( 40 years) coherent information on the ozone behavior in the stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. The 14-months periods following the El-Chichon and the Mt. Pinatubo eruptions were excluded from the analysis. Then the basic climatological characteristics of the vertical ozone distribution in the 44-52°N and more southern locations are described. Some of these characteristics are not well known or impossible to be determined from satellites or single stations. The absolute and relative variability reach their maximum during winter-spring at altitudes below 24km the lower stratospheric layers in the middle latitudes contain 62% of the total ozone and contribute 57% to its total variability. The layer-5 (between 24 and 29km) although containing 20% of the total ozone shows the least fluctuations, no trend and contributes only 11% to the total ozone variability. Meridional cross-sections from 19 to 52°N of the vertical ozone distribution and its variability illustrate the changes, and show poleward-decreasing altitude of the ozone maximum. The deduced trends above 33km confirm a strong ozone decline since the mid-1970s of over 5% per decade without significant seasonal differences. In the mid-latitude stations, the decline in the 15-24km layer is nearly twice as strong in the winter-spring season but much smaller in the summer and fall. The effect of including 1998 and 1999 years with relatively high total ozone data reduces the overall-declining trend. The trends estimated from alg-99 retrievals are statistically not significantly different from those in WMO 1998a; however, they are stronger by about 1% per decade in the lower stratosphere and thus closer to the estimates by sondes. Comparisons of the integrated ozone loss from the Umkehr measurements with the total ozone changes for the same periods at stations with good records show complete concurrence. The altitude and latitude appearances of the long-term geophysical signals like solar (1-2%) and QBO (2-7%) are investigated.

Dates and versions

insu-03098764 , version 1 (05-01-2021)



R. D. Bojkov, E. Kosmidis, J. J. Deluisi, I. Petropavlovskikh, V. E. Fioletov, et al.. Vertical ozone distribution characteristics deduced from ∼ 44,000 re-evaluated Umkehr profiles (1957-2000). Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 2002, 79 (3-4), pp.127-158. ⟨10.1007/s007030200000⟩. ⟨insu-03098764⟩
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