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Journal Articles Surveys in Geophysics Year : 1996

Physical mechanisms of man-made influences on the magnetosphere


Since the discovery of the Luxembourg effect in the 1930s, it is clear that man-made activities can perturb the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. The anthropogenic effects are mainly due to different kinds of waves coming from the Earth's surface. Acoustic-gravity waves are generated by large explosions, spacecraft launches, or flight of supersonic planes. Electromagnetic waves are active in different frequency ranges. Power line harmonic radiation which is radiated in the ELF range by electrical power systems can be observed over industrial areas. At VLF and HF, the ground-based transmitters used for communications or radio-navigation heat the ionosphere and change the natural parameters. A large variety of phenomena is observed: wave-particle interaction, precipitation of radiation belt electrons, parametric coupling of EM whistler waves, triggered emissions, frequency shift, and whistler spectrum broadening. This paper will review the different physical mechanisms which are relevant to such perturbations. The possibility of direct chemical pollution in the ionosphere due to gas releases is also discussed.

Dates and versions

insu-03239201 , version 1 (27-05-2021)



Michel Parrot, Y. Zaslavski. Physical mechanisms of man-made influences on the magnetosphere. Surveys in Geophysics, 1996, 17 (1), pp.67-100. ⟨10.1007/BF01904475⟩. ⟨insu-03239201⟩
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