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Journal Articles Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Year : 2022

Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270

Laurel Kaye
  • Function : Author
Shreyas Vissapragada
  • Function : Author
Maximilian N. Günther
  • Function : Author
Suzanne Aigrain
Thomas Mikal-Evans
  • Function : Author
Eric L. N. Jensen
  • Function : Author
Hannu Parviainen
  • Function : Author
Francisco J. Pozuelos
  • Function : Author
Jack S. Acton
  • Function : Author
Douglas R. Alves
  • Function : Author
David R. Anderson
  • Function : Author
David J. Armstrong
  • Function : Author
Khalid Barkaoui
Oscar Barragán
  • Function : Author
Björn Benneke
Patricia T. Boyd
  • Function : Author
Rafael Brahm
Ivan Bruni
  • Function : Author
Edward M. Bryant
  • Function : Author
Matthew R. Burleigh
  • Function : Author
Sarah L. Casewell
  • Function : Author
David Ciardi
Ryan Cloutier
Karen A. Collins
  • Function : Author
Kevin I. Collins
  • Function : Author
Dennis M. Conti
  • Function : Author
Ian J. M. Crossfield
  • Function : Author
Nicolas Crouzet
Tansu Daylan
Diana Dragomir
Georgina Dransfield
Daniel Fabrycky
Michael Fausnaugh
  • Function : Author
Gábor Fuűrész
  • Function : Author
Tianjun Gan
Samuel Gill
  • Function : Author
Michaël Gillon
Michael R. Goad
  • Function : Author
Varoujan Gorjian
  • Function : Author
Michael Greklek-Mckeon
  • Function : Author
Natalia Guerrero
  • Function : Author
Tristan Guillot
Emmanuël Jehin
J. S. Jenkins
  • Function : Author
Monika Lendl
  • Function : Author
Jacob Kamler
  • Function : Author
Stephen R. Kane
  • Function : Author
John F. Kielkopf
  • Function : Author
Michelle Kunimoto
  • Function : Author
Wenceslas Marie-Sainte
  • Function : Author
James Mccormac
  • Function : Author
Djamel Mékarnia
Farisa Y. Morales
  • Function : Author
Maximiliano Moyano
  • Function : Author
Enric Palle
  • Function : Author
Vivien Parmentier
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 770949
  • IdRef : 180571079
Howard M. Relles
  • Function : Author
François-Xavier Schmider
Richard P. Schwarz
  • Function : Author
S. Seager
Alexis M. S. Smith
  • Function : Author
Thiam-Guan Tan
Jake Taylor
  • Function : Author
Amaury H. M. J. Triaud
  • Function : Author
Joseph D. Twicken
  • Function : Author
Stephane Udry
  • Function : Author
J. I. Vines
  • Function : Author
Gavin Wang
Peter J. Wheatley
  • Function : Author
Joshua N. Winn
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present ground- and space-based photometric observations of TOI-270 (L231-32), a system of three transiting planets consisting of one super-Earth and two sub-Neptunes discovered by TESS around a bright (K-mag = 8.25) M3V dwarf. The planets orbit near low-order mean-motion resonances (5:3 and 2:1) and are thus expected to exhibit large transit timing variations (TTVs). Following an extensive observing campaign using eight different observatories between 2018 and 2020, we now report a clear detection of TTVs for planets c and d, with amplitudes of ~10 min and a super-period of ~3 yr, as well as significantly refined estimates of the radii and mean orbital periods of all three planets. Dynamical modelling of the TTVs alone puts strong constraints on the mass ratio of planets c and d and on their eccentricities. When incorporating recently published constraints from radial velocity observations, we obtain masses of $M_{\mathrm{b}}=1.48\pm 0.18\, M_\oplus$, $M_{\mathrm{c}}=6.20\pm 0.31\, M_\oplus$, and $M_{\mathrm{d}}=4.20\pm 0.16\, M_\oplus$ for planets b, c, and d, respectively. We also detect small but significant eccentricities for all three planets : eb = 0.0167 ± 0.0084, ec = 0.0044 ± 0.0006, and ed = 0.0066 ± 0.0020. Our findings imply an Earth-like rocky composition for the inner planet, and Earth-like cores with an additional He/H2O atmosphere for the outer two. TOI-270 is now one of the best constrained systems of small transiting planets, and it remains an excellent target for atmospheric characterization.
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Dates and versions

insu-03656914 , version 1 (04-06-2022)

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Laurel Kaye, Shreyas Vissapragada, Maximilian N. Günther, Suzanne Aigrain, Thomas Mikal-Evans, et al.. Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2022, 510, pp.5464-5485. ⟨10.1093/mnras/stab3483⟩. ⟨insu-03656914⟩
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