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Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Letters Year : 2022

A Universal Power-law Prescription for Variability from Synthetic Images of Black Hole Accretion Flows

Boris Georgiev , Dominic W. Pesce , Avery E. Broderick , George N. Wong , Vedant Dhruv , Maciek Wielgus , Charles F. Gammie , Chi-Kwan Chan , Koushik Chatterjee , Razieh Emami , Yosuke Mizuno , Roman Gold , Christian M. Fromm , Angelo Ricarte , Doosoo Yoon , Abhishek V. Joshi , Ben Prather , Alejandro Cruz-Osorio , Michael D. Johnson , Oliver Porth , Héctor Olivares , Ziri Younsi , Luciano Rezzolla , Jesse Vos , Richard Qiu , Antonios Nathanail , Ramesh Narayan , Andrew Chael , Richard Anantua , Monika Moscibrodzka , Kazunori Akiyama , Antxon Alberdi , Walter Alef , Juan Carlos Algaba , Keiichi Asada , Rebecca Azulay , Uwe Bach , Anne-Kathrin Baczko , David Ball , Mislav Baloković , John Barrett , Michi Bauböck , Bradford A. Benson , Dan Bintley , Lindy Blackburn , Raymond Blundell , Katherine L. Bouman , Geoffrey C. Bower , Hope Boyce , Michael Bremer , Christiaan D. Brinkerink , Roger Brissenden , Silke Britzen , Dominique Broguiere , Thomas Bronzwaer , Sandra Bustamante , Do-Young Byun , John E. Carlstrom , Chiara Ceccobello , Shami Chatterjee , Ming-Tang Chen , Yongjun Chen , Xiaopeng Cheng , Ilje Cho , Pierre Christian , Nicholas S. Conroy , John E. Conway , James M. Cordes , Thomas M. Crawford , Geoffrey B. Crew , Yuzhu Cui , Jordy Davelaar , Mariafelicia de Laurentis , Roger Deane , Jessica Dempsey , Gregory Desvignes (1) , Jason Dexter , Sheperd S. Doeleman , Sean Dougal , Sergio A. Dzib , Ralph P. Eatough , Heino Falcke , Joseph Farah , Vincent L. Fish , Ed Fomalont , H. Alyson Ford , Raquel Fraga-Encinas , William T. Freeman , Per Friberg , Antonio Fuentes , Peter Galison , Roberto García , Olivier Gentaz , Ciriaco Goddi , Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz , José L. Gómez , Minfeng Gu , Mark Gurwell , Kazuhiro Hada , Daryl Haggard , Kari Haworth , Michael H. Hecht , Ronald Hesper , Dirk Heumann , Luis C. Ho , Paul Ho , Mareki Honma , Chih-Wei L. Huang , Lei Huang , David H. Hughes , Shiro Ikeda , C. M. Violette Impellizzeri , Makoto Inoue , Sara Issaoun , David J. James , Buell T. Jannuzi , Michael Janssen , Britton Jeter , Wu Jiang , Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales , Svetlana Jorstad , Taehyun Jung , Mansour Karami , Ramesh Karuppusamy , Tomohisa Kawashima , Garrett K. Keating , Mark Kettenis , Dong-Jin Kim , Jae-Young Kim , Jongsoo Kim , Junhan Kim , Motoki Kino , Jun Yi Koay , Prashant Kocherlakota , Yutaro Kofuji , Patrick M. Koch , Shoko Koyama , Carsten Kramer , Michael Kramer , Thomas P. Krichbaum , Cheng-Yu Kuo , Noemi La Bella , Tod R. Lauer , Daeyoung Lee , Sang-Sung Lee , Luis Lehner , Po Kin Leung , Aviad Levis , Zhiyuan Li , Rocco Lico , Greg Lindahl , Michael Lindqvist , Mikhail Lisakov , Jun Liu , Kuo Liu , Elisabetta Liuzzo , Wen-Ping Lo , Andrei P. Lobanov , Laurent Loinard , Colin J. Lonsdale , Ru-Sen Lu , Jirong Mao , Nicola Marchili , Sera Markoff , Daniel P. Marrone , Alan P. Marscher , Iván Martí-Vidal , Satoki Matsushita , Lynn D. Matthews , Karl M. Menten , Daniel Michalik , Izumi Mizuno , James M. Moran , Kotaro Moriyama , Cornelia Müller , Alejandro Mus , Gibwa Musoke , Ioannis Myserlis , Andrew Nadolski , Hiroshi Nagai , Neil M. Nagar , Masanori Nakamura , Gopal Narayanan , Iniyan Natarajan , Santiago Navarro Fuentes , Joey Neilsen , Roberto Neri , Chunchong Ni , Aristeidis Noutsos , Michael A. Nowak , Junghwan Oh , Hiroki Okino , Gisela N. Ortiz-León , Tomoaki Oyama , Daniel C. M. Palumbo , Georgios Filippos Paraschos , Jongho Park , Harriet Parsons , Nimesh Patel , Ue-Li Pen , Vincent Piétu , Richard Plambeck , Aleksandar Popstefanija , Felix M. Pötzl , Jorge A. Preciado-López , Hung-Yi Pu , Venkatessh Ramakrishnan , Ramprasad Rao , Mark G. Rawlings , Alexander W. Raymond , Bart Ripperda , Freek Roelofs , Alan Rogers , Eduardo Ros , Cristina Romero-Cañizales , Arash Roshanineshat , Helge Rottmann , Alan L. Roy , Ignacio Ruiz , Chet Ruszczyk , Kazi L. J. Rygl , Salvador Sánchez , David Sánchez-Argüelles , Miguel Sánchez-Portal , Mahito Sasada , Kaushik Satapathy , Tuomas Savolainen , F. Peter Schloerb , Jonathan Schonfeld , Karl-Friedrich Schuster , Lijing Shao , Zhiqiang Shen , Des Small , Bong Won Sohn , Jason Soohoo , Kamal Souccar , He Sun , Fumie Tazaki , Alexandra J. Tetarenko , Paul Tiede , Remo P. J. Tilanus , Michael Titus , Pablo Torne , Efthalia Traianou , Tyler Trent , Sascha Trippe , Matthew Turk , Ilse van Bemmel , Huib Jan van Langevelde , Daniel R. van Rossum , Jan Wagner , Derek Ward-Thompson , John Wardle , Jonathan Weintroub , Norbert Wex , Robert Wharton , Kaj Wiik , Gunther Witzel , Michael F. Wondrak , Qingwen Wu , Paul Yamaguchi , André Young , Ken Young , Feng Yuan , Ye-Fei Yuan , J. Anton Zensus , Shuo Zhang , Guang-Yao Zhao , Shan-Shan Zhao
Boris Georgiev
  • Function : Author
Dominic W. Pesce
  • Function : Author
Avery E. Broderick
  • Function : Author
George N. Wong
  • Function : Author
Vedant Dhruv
  • Function : Author
Maciek Wielgus
  • Function : Author
Charles F. Gammie
  • Function : Author
Chi-Kwan Chan
  • Function : Author
Koushik Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Razieh Emami
  • Function : Author
Yosuke Mizuno
  • Function : Author
Roman Gold
  • Function : Author
Christian M. Fromm
  • Function : Author
Angelo Ricarte
  • Function : Author
Doosoo Yoon
  • Function : Author
Abhishek V. Joshi
  • Function : Author
Ben Prather
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Cruz-Osorio
  • Function : Author
Michael D. Johnson
  • Function : Author
Oliver Porth
  • Function : Author
Héctor Olivares
  • Function : Author
Ziri Younsi
  • Function : Author
Luciano Rezzolla
  • Function : Author
Jesse Vos
  • Function : Author
Richard Qiu
  • Function : Author
Antonios Nathanail
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Narayan
  • Function : Author
Andrew Chael
  • Function : Author
Richard Anantua
  • Function : Author
Monika Moscibrodzka
  • Function : Author
Kazunori Akiyama
  • Function : Author
Antxon Alberdi
  • Function : Author
Walter Alef
  • Function : Author
Juan Carlos Algaba
  • Function : Author
Keiichi Asada
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Azulay
  • Function : Author
Uwe Bach
  • Function : Author
Anne-Kathrin Baczko
  • Function : Author
David Ball
  • Function : Author
Mislav Baloković
  • Function : Author
John Barrett
  • Function : Author
Michi Bauböck
  • Function : Author
Bradford A. Benson
  • Function : Author
Dan Bintley
  • Function : Author
Lindy Blackburn
  • Function : Author
Raymond Blundell
  • Function : Author
Katherine L. Bouman
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Function : Author
Hope Boyce
  • Function : Author
Michael Bremer
  • Function : Author
Christiaan D. Brinkerink
  • Function : Author
Roger Brissenden
  • Function : Author
Silke Britzen
  • Function : Author
Dominique Broguiere
  • Function : Author
Thomas Bronzwaer
  • Function : Author
Sandra Bustamante
  • Function : Author
Do-Young Byun
  • Function : Author
John E. Carlstrom
  • Function : Author
Chiara Ceccobello
  • Function : Author
Shami Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Ming-Tang Chen
  • Function : Author
Yongjun Chen
  • Function : Author
Xiaopeng Cheng
  • Function : Author
Ilje Cho
  • Function : Author
Pierre Christian
  • Function : Author
Nicholas S. Conroy
  • Function : Author
John E. Conway
  • Function : Author
James M. Cordes
  • Function : Author
Thomas M. Crawford
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey B. Crew
  • Function : Author
Yuzhu Cui
  • Function : Author
Jordy Davelaar
  • Function : Author
Mariafelicia de Laurentis
  • Function : Author
Roger Deane
  • Function : Author
Jessica Dempsey
  • Function : Author
Jason Dexter
  • Function : Author
Sheperd S. Doeleman
  • Function : Author
Sean Dougal
  • Function : Author
Sergio A. Dzib
  • Function : Author
Ralph P. Eatough
  • Function : Author
Heino Falcke
  • Function : Author
Joseph Farah
Vincent L. Fish
  • Function : Author
Ed Fomalont
  • Function : Author
H. Alyson Ford
  • Function : Author
Raquel Fraga-Encinas
  • Function : Author
William T. Freeman
  • Function : Author
Per Friberg
  • Function : Author
Antonio Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Peter Galison
  • Function : Author
Roberto García
  • Function : Author
Olivier Gentaz
  • Function : Author
Ciriaco Goddi
  • Function : Author
Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
  • Function : Author
José L. Gómez
  • Function : Author
Minfeng Gu
  • Function : Author
Mark Gurwell
  • Function : Author
Kazuhiro Hada
  • Function : Author
Daryl Haggard
  • Function : Author
Kari Haworth
  • Function : Author
Michael H. Hecht
  • Function : Author
Ronald Hesper
  • Function : Author
Dirk Heumann
  • Function : Author
Luis C. Ho
  • Function : Author
Paul Ho
  • Function : Author
Mareki Honma
  • Function : Author
Chih-Wei L. Huang
  • Function : Author
Lei Huang
  • Function : Author
David H. Hughes
  • Function : Author
Shiro Ikeda
  • Function : Author
C. M. Violette Impellizzeri
  • Function : Author
Makoto Inoue
  • Function : Author
Sara Issaoun
  • Function : Author
David J. James
  • Function : Author
Buell T. Jannuzi
  • Function : Author
Michael Janssen
  • Function : Author
Britton Jeter
  • Function : Author
Wu Jiang
  • Function : Author
Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales
  • Function : Author
Svetlana Jorstad
  • Function : Author
Taehyun Jung
  • Function : Author
Mansour Karami
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Karuppusamy
  • Function : Author
Tomohisa Kawashima
  • Function : Author
Garrett K. Keating
  • Function : Author
Mark Kettenis
  • Function : Author
Dong-Jin Kim
  • Function : Author
Jae-Young Kim
  • Function : Author
Jongsoo Kim
  • Function : Author
Junhan Kim
  • Function : Author
Motoki Kino
  • Function : Author
Jun Yi Koay
  • Function : Author
Prashant Kocherlakota
  • Function : Author
Yutaro Kofuji
  • Function : Author
Patrick M. Koch
  • Function : Author
Shoko Koyama
  • Function : Author
Carsten Kramer
  • Function : Author
Michael Kramer
  • Function : Author
Thomas P. Krichbaum
  • Function : Author
Cheng-Yu Kuo
  • Function : Author
Noemi La Bella
  • Function : Author
Tod R. Lauer
  • Function : Author
Daeyoung Lee
  • Function : Author
Sang-Sung Lee
  • Function : Author
Luis Lehner
  • Function : Author
Po Kin Leung
  • Function : Author
Aviad Levis
  • Function : Author
Zhiyuan Li
  • Function : Author
Rocco Lico
  • Function : Author
Greg Lindahl
  • Function : Author
Michael Lindqvist
  • Function : Author
Mikhail Lisakov
  • Function : Author
Jun Liu
  • Function : Author
Kuo Liu
  • Function : Author
Elisabetta Liuzzo
  • Function : Author
Wen-Ping Lo
  • Function : Author
Andrei P. Lobanov
  • Function : Author
Laurent Loinard
  • Function : Author
Colin J. Lonsdale
  • Function : Author
Ru-Sen Lu
  • Function : Author
Jirong Mao
  • Function : Author
Nicola Marchili
  • Function : Author
Sera Markoff
  • Function : Author
Daniel P. Marrone
  • Function : Author
Alan P. Marscher
  • Function : Author
Iván Martí-Vidal
  • Function : Author
Satoki Matsushita
  • Function : Author
Lynn D. Matthews
  • Function : Author
Karl M. Menten
  • Function : Author
Daniel Michalik
  • Function : Author
Izumi Mizuno
  • Function : Author
James M. Moran
  • Function : Author
Kotaro Moriyama
  • Function : Author
Cornelia Müller
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Mus
  • Function : Author
Gibwa Musoke
  • Function : Author
Ioannis Myserlis
  • Function : Author
Andrew Nadolski
  • Function : Author
Hiroshi Nagai
  • Function : Author
Neil M. Nagar
  • Function : Author
Masanori Nakamura
  • Function : Author
Gopal Narayanan
  • Function : Author
Iniyan Natarajan
  • Function : Author
Santiago Navarro Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Joey Neilsen
  • Function : Author
Roberto Neri
  • Function : Author
Chunchong Ni
  • Function : Author
Aristeidis Noutsos
  • Function : Author
Michael A. Nowak
  • Function : Author
Junghwan Oh
  • Function : Author
Hiroki Okino
  • Function : Author
Gisela N. Ortiz-León
  • Function : Author
Tomoaki Oyama
  • Function : Author
Daniel C. M. Palumbo
  • Function : Author
Georgios Filippos Paraschos
  • Function : Author
Jongho Park
  • Function : Author
Harriet Parsons
  • Function : Author
Nimesh Patel
  • Function : Author
Ue-Li Pen
  • Function : Author
Vincent Piétu
  • Function : Author
Richard Plambeck
  • Function : Author
Aleksandar Popstefanija
  • Function : Author
Felix M. Pötzl
  • Function : Author
Jorge A. Preciado-López
  • Function : Author
Hung-Yi Pu
  • Function : Author
Venkatessh Ramakrishnan
  • Function : Author
Ramprasad Rao
  • Function : Author
Mark G. Rawlings
  • Function : Author
Alexander W. Raymond
  • Function : Author
Bart Ripperda
  • Function : Author
Freek Roelofs
  • Function : Author
Alan Rogers
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Ros
  • Function : Author
Cristina Romero-Cañizales
  • Function : Author
Arash Roshanineshat
  • Function : Author
Helge Rottmann
  • Function : Author
Alan L. Roy
  • Function : Author
Ignacio Ruiz
  • Function : Author
Chet Ruszczyk
  • Function : Author
Kazi L. J. Rygl
  • Function : Author
Salvador Sánchez
  • Function : Author
David Sánchez-Argüelles
  • Function : Author
Miguel Sánchez-Portal
  • Function : Author
Mahito Sasada
  • Function : Author
Kaushik Satapathy
  • Function : Author
Tuomas Savolainen
  • Function : Author
F. Peter Schloerb
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Schonfeld
  • Function : Author
Karl-Friedrich Schuster
  • Function : Author
Lijing Shao
  • Function : Author
Zhiqiang Shen
  • Function : Author
Des Small
  • Function : Author
Bong Won Sohn
  • Function : Author
Jason Soohoo
  • Function : Author
Kamal Souccar
  • Function : Author
He Sun
  • Function : Author
Fumie Tazaki
  • Function : Author
Alexandra J. Tetarenko
  • Function : Author
Paul Tiede
  • Function : Author
Remo P. J. Tilanus
  • Function : Author
Michael Titus
  • Function : Author
Pablo Torne
  • Function : Author
Efthalia Traianou
  • Function : Author
Tyler Trent
  • Function : Author
Sascha Trippe
  • Function : Author
Matthew Turk
  • Function : Author
Ilse van Bemmel
  • Function : Author
Huib Jan van Langevelde
  • Function : Author
Daniel R. van Rossum
  • Function : Author
Jan Wagner
  • Function : Author
Derek Ward-Thompson
  • Function : Author
John Wardle
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Weintroub
  • Function : Author
Norbert Wex
  • Function : Author
Robert Wharton
  • Function : Author
Kaj Wiik
  • Function : Author
Gunther Witzel
  • Function : Author
Michael F. Wondrak
  • Function : Author
Qingwen Wu
  • Function : Author
Paul Yamaguchi
  • Function : Author
André Young
  • Function : Author
Ken Young
  • Function : Author
Feng Yuan
  • Function : Author
Ye-Fei Yuan
  • Function : Author
J. Anton Zensus
  • Function : Author
Shuo Zhang
  • Function : Author
Guang-Yao Zhao
  • Function : Author
Shan-Shan Zhao
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present a framework for characterizing the spatiotemporal power spectrum of the variability expected from the horizon-scale emission structure around supermassive black holes, and we apply this framework to a library of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations and associated general relativistic ray-traced images relevant for Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of Sgr A*. We find that the variability power spectrum is generically a red-noise process in both the temporal and spatial dimensions, with the peak in power occurring on the longest timescales and largest spatial scales. When both the time-averaged source structure and the spatially integrated light-curve variability are removed, the residual power spectrum exhibits a universal broken power-law behavior. On small spatial frequencies, the residual power spectrum rises as the square of the spatial frequency and is proportional to the variance in the centroid of emission. Beyond some peak in variability power, the residual power spectrum falls as that of the time-averaged source structure, which is similar across simulations; this behavior can be naturally explained if the variability arises from a multiplicative random field that has a steeper high-frequency power-law index than that of the time-averaged source structure. We briefly explore the ability of power spectral variability studies to constrain physical parameters relevant for the GRMHD simulations, which can be scaled to provide predictions for black holes in a range of systems in the optically thin regime. We present specific expectations for the behavior of the M87* and Sgr A* accretion flows as observed by the EHT.
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Dates and versions

insu-03713308 , version 1 (04-07-2022)

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Boris Georgiev, Dominic W. Pesce, Avery E. Broderick, George N. Wong, Vedant Dhruv, et al.. A Universal Power-law Prescription for Variability from Synthetic Images of Black Hole Accretion Flows. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2022, 930, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/ac65eb⟩. ⟨insu-03713308⟩
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