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Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Year : 2022

The Variability of the Black Hole Image in M87 at the Dynamical Timescale

Kaushik Satapathy , Dimitrios Psaltis , Feryal Özel , Lia Medeiros , Sean T. Dougall , Chi-Kwan Chan , Maciek Wielgus , Ben S. Prather , George N. Wong , Charles F. Gammie , Kazunori Akiyama , Antxon Alberdi , Walter Alef , Juan Carlos Algaba , Richard Anantua , Keiichi Asada , Rebecca Azulay , Anne-Kathrin Baczko , David Ball , Mislav Baloković , John Barrett , Bradford A. Benson , Dan Bintley , Lindy Blackburn , Raymond Blundell , Wilfred Boland , Katherine L. Bouman , Geoffrey C. Bower , Hope Boyce , Michael Bremer , Christiaan D. Brinkerink , Roger Brissenden , Silke Britzen , Avery E. Broderick , Dominique Broguiere , Thomas Bronzwaer , Sandra Bustamente , Do-Young Byun , John E. Carlstrom , Andrew Chael , Koushik Chatterjee , Shami Chatterjee , Ming-Tang Chen , Yongjun Chen , Ilje Cho , Pierre Christian , John E. Conway , James M. Cordes , Thomas M. Crawford , Geoffrey B. Crew , Alejandro Cruz-Osorio , Yuzhu Cui , Jordy Davelaar , Mariafelicia de Laurentis , Roger Deane , Jessica Dempsey , Gregory Desvignes (1) , Jason Dexter , Sheperd S. Doeleman , Ralph P. Eatough , Heino Falcke , Joseph Farah , Vincent L. Fish , Ed Fomalont , H. Alyson Ford , Raquel Fraga-Encinas , Per Friberg , Christian M. Fromm , Antonio Fuentes , Peter Galison , Roberto García , Olivier Gentaz , Boris Georgiev , Ciriaco Goddi , Roman Gold , Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz , José L. Gómez , Minfeng Gu , Mark Gurwell , Kazuhiro Hada , Daryl Haggard , Michael H. Hecht , Ronald Hesper , Luis C. Ho , Paul Ho , Mareki Honma , Chih-Wei L. Huang , Lei Huang , David H. Hughes , Shiro Ikeda , Makoto Inoue , Sara Issaoun , David J. James , Buell T. Jannuzi , Michael Janssen , Britton Jeter , Wu Jiang , Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales , Michael D. Johnson , Svetlana Jorstad , Taehyun Jung , Mansour Karami , Ramesh Karuppusamy , Tomohisa Kawashima , Garrett K. Keating , Mark Kettenis , Dong-Jin Kim , Jae-Young Kim , Jongsoo Kim , Junhan Kim , Motoki Kino , Jun Yi Koay , Yutaro Kofuji , Patrick M. Koch , Shoko Koyama , Carsten Kramer , Michael Kramer , Thomas P. Krichbaum , Cheng-Yu Kuo , Tod R. Lauer , Sang-Sung Lee , Aviad Levis , Yan-Rong Li , Zhiyuan Li , Michael Lindqvist , Rocco Lico , Greg Lindahl , Jun Liu , Kuo Liu , Elisabetta Liuzzo , Wen-Ping Lo , Andrei P. Lobanov , Laurent Loinard , Colin Lonsdale , Ru-Sen Lu , Nicholas R. Macdonald , Jirong Mao , Nicola Marchili , Sera Markoff , Daniel P. Marrone , Alan P. Marscher , Iván Martí-Vidal , Satoki Matsushita , Lynn D. Matthews , Karl M. Menten , Izumi Mizuno , Yosuke Mizuno , James M. Moran , Kotaro Moriyama , Monika Moscibrodzka , Cornelia Müller , Alejandro Mus Mejías , Gibwa Musoke , Hiroshi Nagai , Neil M. Nagar , Masanori Nakamura , Ramesh Narayan , Gopal Narayanan , Iniyan Natarajan , Antonios Nathanail , Joey Neilsen , Roberto Neri , Chunchong Ni , Aristeidis Noutsos , Michael A. Nowak , Hiroki Okino , Héctor Olivares , Gisela N. Ortiz-León , Tomoaki Oyama , Daniel C. M. Palumbo , Jongho Park , Nimesh Patel , Ue-Li Pen , Dominic W. Pesce , Vincent Piétu , Richard Plambeck , Aleksandar Popstefanija , Oliver Porth , Felix M. Pötzl , Jorge A. Preciado-López , Hung-Yi Pu , Venkatessh Ramakrishnan , Ramprasad Rao , Mark G. Rawlings , Alexander W. Raymond , Luciano Rezzolla , Bart Ripperda , Freek Roelofs , Alan Rogers , Eduardo Ros , Mel Rose , Arash Roshanineshat , Helge Rottmann , Alan L. Roy , Chet Ruszczyk , Kazi L. J. Rygl , Salvador Sánchez , David Sánchez-Arguelles , Mahito Sasada , Tuomas Savolainen , F. Peter Schloerb , Karl-Friedrich Schuster , Lijing Shao , Zhiqiang Shen , Des Small , Bong Won Sohn , Jason Soohoo , He Sun , Fumie Tazaki , Alexandra J. Tetarenko , Paul Tiede , Remo P. J. Tilanus , Michael Titus , Kenji Toma , Pablo Torne , Efthalia Traianou , Tyler Trent , Sascha Trippe , Ilse van Bemmel , Huib Jan van Langevelde , Daniel R. van Rossum , Jan Wagner , Derek Ward-Thompson , John Wardle , Jonathan Weintroub , Norbert Wex , Robert Wharton , Kaj Wiik , Qingwen Wu , Doosoo Yoon , André Young , Ken Young , Ziri Younsi , Feng Yuan , Ye-Fei Yuan , J. Anton Zensus , Guang-Yao Zhao , Shan-Shan Zhao
Kaushik Satapathy
  • Function : Author
Dimitrios Psaltis
  • Function : Author
Feryal Özel
  • Function : Author
Lia Medeiros
  • Function : Author
Sean T. Dougall
  • Function : Author
Chi-Kwan Chan
  • Function : Author
Maciek Wielgus
  • Function : Author
Ben S. Prather
  • Function : Author
George N. Wong
  • Function : Author
Charles F. Gammie
  • Function : Author
Kazunori Akiyama
  • Function : Author
Antxon Alberdi
  • Function : Author
Walter Alef
  • Function : Author
Juan Carlos Algaba
  • Function : Author
Richard Anantua
  • Function : Author
Keiichi Asada
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Azulay
  • Function : Author
Anne-Kathrin Baczko
  • Function : Author
David Ball
  • Function : Author
Mislav Baloković
  • Function : Author
John Barrett
  • Function : Author
Bradford A. Benson
  • Function : Author
Dan Bintley
  • Function : Author
Lindy Blackburn
  • Function : Author
Raymond Blundell
  • Function : Author
Wilfred Boland
  • Function : Author
Katherine L. Bouman
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Function : Author
Hope Boyce
  • Function : Author
Michael Bremer
  • Function : Author
Christiaan D. Brinkerink
  • Function : Author
Roger Brissenden
  • Function : Author
Silke Britzen
  • Function : Author
Avery E. Broderick
  • Function : Author
Dominique Broguiere
  • Function : Author
Thomas Bronzwaer
  • Function : Author
Sandra Bustamente
  • Function : Author
Do-Young Byun
  • Function : Author
John E. Carlstrom
  • Function : Author
Andrew Chael
  • Function : Author
Koushik Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Shami Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Ming-Tang Chen
  • Function : Author
Yongjun Chen
  • Function : Author
Ilje Cho
  • Function : Author
Pierre Christian
  • Function : Author
John E. Conway
  • Function : Author
James M. Cordes
  • Function : Author
Thomas M. Crawford
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey B. Crew
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Cruz-Osorio
  • Function : Author
Yuzhu Cui
  • Function : Author
Jordy Davelaar
  • Function : Author
Mariafelicia de Laurentis
  • Function : Author
Roger Deane
  • Function : Author
Jessica Dempsey
  • Function : Author
Jason Dexter
  • Function : Author
Sheperd S. Doeleman
  • Function : Author
Ralph P. Eatough
  • Function : Author
Heino Falcke
  • Function : Author
Joseph Farah
Vincent L. Fish
  • Function : Author
Ed Fomalont
  • Function : Author
H. Alyson Ford
  • Function : Author
Raquel Fraga-Encinas
  • Function : Author
Per Friberg
  • Function : Author
Christian M. Fromm
  • Function : Author
Antonio Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Peter Galison
  • Function : Author
Roberto García
  • Function : Author
Olivier Gentaz
  • Function : Author
Boris Georgiev
  • Function : Author
Ciriaco Goddi
  • Function : Author
Roman Gold
  • Function : Author
Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
  • Function : Author
José L. Gómez
  • Function : Author
Minfeng Gu
  • Function : Author
Mark Gurwell
  • Function : Author
Kazuhiro Hada
  • Function : Author
Daryl Haggard
  • Function : Author
Michael H. Hecht
  • Function : Author
Ronald Hesper
  • Function : Author
Luis C. Ho
  • Function : Author
Paul Ho
  • Function : Author
Mareki Honma
  • Function : Author
Chih-Wei L. Huang
  • Function : Author
Lei Huang
  • Function : Author
David H. Hughes
  • Function : Author
Shiro Ikeda
  • Function : Author
Makoto Inoue
  • Function : Author
Sara Issaoun
  • Function : Author
David J. James
  • Function : Author
Buell T. Jannuzi
  • Function : Author
Michael Janssen
  • Function : Author
Britton Jeter
  • Function : Author
Wu Jiang
  • Function : Author
Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales
  • Function : Author
Michael D. Johnson
  • Function : Author
Svetlana Jorstad
  • Function : Author
Taehyun Jung
  • Function : Author
Mansour Karami
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Karuppusamy
  • Function : Author
Tomohisa Kawashima
  • Function : Author
Garrett K. Keating
  • Function : Author
Mark Kettenis
  • Function : Author
Dong-Jin Kim
  • Function : Author
Jae-Young Kim
  • Function : Author
Jongsoo Kim
  • Function : Author
Junhan Kim
  • Function : Author
Motoki Kino
  • Function : Author
Jun Yi Koay
  • Function : Author
Yutaro Kofuji
  • Function : Author
Patrick M. Koch
  • Function : Author
Shoko Koyama
  • Function : Author
Carsten Kramer
  • Function : Author
Michael Kramer
  • Function : Author
Thomas P. Krichbaum
  • Function : Author
Cheng-Yu Kuo
  • Function : Author
Tod R. Lauer
  • Function : Author
Sang-Sung Lee
  • Function : Author
Aviad Levis
  • Function : Author
Yan-Rong Li
  • Function : Author
Zhiyuan Li
  • Function : Author
Michael Lindqvist
  • Function : Author
Rocco Lico
  • Function : Author
Greg Lindahl
  • Function : Author
Jun Liu
  • Function : Author
Kuo Liu
  • Function : Author
Elisabetta Liuzzo
  • Function : Author
Wen-Ping Lo
  • Function : Author
Andrei P. Lobanov
  • Function : Author
Laurent Loinard
  • Function : Author
Colin Lonsdale
  • Function : Author
Ru-Sen Lu
  • Function : Author
Nicholas R. Macdonald
  • Function : Author
Jirong Mao
  • Function : Author
Nicola Marchili
  • Function : Author
Sera Markoff
  • Function : Author
Daniel P. Marrone
  • Function : Author
Alan P. Marscher
  • Function : Author
Iván Martí-Vidal
  • Function : Author
Satoki Matsushita
  • Function : Author
Lynn D. Matthews
  • Function : Author
Karl M. Menten
  • Function : Author
Izumi Mizuno
  • Function : Author
Yosuke Mizuno
  • Function : Author
James M. Moran
  • Function : Author
Kotaro Moriyama
  • Function : Author
Monika Moscibrodzka
  • Function : Author
Cornelia Müller
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Mus Mejías
  • Function : Author
Gibwa Musoke
  • Function : Author
Hiroshi Nagai
  • Function : Author
Neil M. Nagar
  • Function : Author
Masanori Nakamura
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Narayan
  • Function : Author
Gopal Narayanan
  • Function : Author
Iniyan Natarajan
  • Function : Author
Antonios Nathanail
  • Function : Author
Joey Neilsen
  • Function : Author
Roberto Neri
  • Function : Author
Chunchong Ni
  • Function : Author
Aristeidis Noutsos
  • Function : Author
Michael A. Nowak
  • Function : Author
Hiroki Okino
  • Function : Author
Héctor Olivares
  • Function : Author
Gisela N. Ortiz-León
  • Function : Author
Tomoaki Oyama
  • Function : Author
Daniel C. M. Palumbo
  • Function : Author
Jongho Park
  • Function : Author
Nimesh Patel
  • Function : Author
Ue-Li Pen
  • Function : Author
Dominic W. Pesce
  • Function : Author
Vincent Piétu
  • Function : Author
Richard Plambeck
  • Function : Author
Aleksandar Popstefanija
  • Function : Author
Oliver Porth
  • Function : Author
Felix M. Pötzl
  • Function : Author
Jorge A. Preciado-López
  • Function : Author
Hung-Yi Pu
  • Function : Author
Venkatessh Ramakrishnan
  • Function : Author
Ramprasad Rao
  • Function : Author
Mark G. Rawlings
  • Function : Author
Alexander W. Raymond
  • Function : Author
Luciano Rezzolla
  • Function : Author
Bart Ripperda
  • Function : Author
Freek Roelofs
  • Function : Author
Alan Rogers
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Ros
  • Function : Author
Mel Rose
  • Function : Author
Arash Roshanineshat
  • Function : Author
Helge Rottmann
  • Function : Author
Alan L. Roy
  • Function : Author
Chet Ruszczyk
  • Function : Author
Kazi L. J. Rygl
  • Function : Author
Salvador Sánchez
  • Function : Author
David Sánchez-Arguelles
  • Function : Author
Mahito Sasada
  • Function : Author
Tuomas Savolainen
  • Function : Author
F. Peter Schloerb
  • Function : Author
Karl-Friedrich Schuster
  • Function : Author
Lijing Shao
  • Function : Author
Zhiqiang Shen
  • Function : Author
Des Small
  • Function : Author
Bong Won Sohn
  • Function : Author
Jason Soohoo
  • Function : Author
He Sun
  • Function : Author
Fumie Tazaki
  • Function : Author
Alexandra J. Tetarenko
  • Function : Author
Paul Tiede
  • Function : Author
Remo P. J. Tilanus
  • Function : Author
Michael Titus
  • Function : Author
Kenji Toma
  • Function : Author
Pablo Torne
  • Function : Author
Efthalia Traianou
  • Function : Author
Tyler Trent
  • Function : Author
Sascha Trippe
  • Function : Author
Ilse van Bemmel
  • Function : Author
Huib Jan van Langevelde
  • Function : Author
Daniel R. van Rossum
  • Function : Author
Jan Wagner
  • Function : Author
Derek Ward-Thompson
  • Function : Author
John Wardle
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Weintroub
  • Function : Author
Norbert Wex
  • Function : Author
Robert Wharton
  • Function : Author
Kaj Wiik
  • Function : Author
Qingwen Wu
  • Function : Author
Doosoo Yoon
  • Function : Author
André Young
  • Function : Author
Ken Young
  • Function : Author
Ziri Younsi
  • Function : Author
Feng Yuan
  • Function : Author
Ye-Fei Yuan
  • Function : Author
J. Anton Zensus
  • Function : Author
Guang-Yao Zhao
  • Function : Author
Shan-Shan Zhao
  • Function : Author

Abstract

The black hole images obtained with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) are expected to be variable at the dynamical timescale near their horizons. For the black hole at the center of the M87 galaxy, this timescale (5-61 days) is comparable to the 6 day extent of the 2017 EHT observations. Closure phases along baseline triangles are robust interferometric observables that are sensitive to the expected structural changes of the images but are free of station-based atmospheric and instrumental errors. We explored the day-to-day variability in closure-phase measurements on all six linearly independent nontrivial baseline triangles that can be formed from the 2017 observations. We showed that three triangles exhibit very low day-to-day variability, with a dispersion of ~3°-5°. The only triangles that exhibit substantially higher variability (~90°-180°) are the ones with baselines that cross the visibility amplitude minima on the u-v plane, as expected from theoretical modeling. We used two sets of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to explore the dependence of the predicted variability on various black hole and accretion-flow parameters. We found that changing the magnetic field configuration, electron temperature model, or black hole spin has a marginal effect on the model consistency with the observed level of variability. On the other hand, the most discriminating image characteristic of models is the fractional width of the bright ring of emission. Models that best reproduce the observed small level of variability are characterized by thin ring-like images with structures dominated by gravitational lensing effects and thus least affected by turbulence in the accreting plasmas.
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insu-03713346 , version 1 (04-07-2022)

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Kaushik Satapathy, Dimitrios Psaltis, Feryal Özel, Lia Medeiros, Sean T. Dougall, et al.. The Variability of the Black Hole Image in M87 at the Dynamical Timescale. The Astrophysical Journal, 2022, 925, ⟨10.3847/1538-4357/ac332e⟩. ⟨insu-03713346⟩
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