First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring - INSU - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers Access content directly
Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Letters Year : 2021

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring

Kazunori Akiyama , Juan Carlos Algaba , Antxon Alberdi , Walter Alef , Richard Anantua , Keiichi Asada , Rebecca Azulay , Anne-Kathrin Baczko , David Ball , Mislav Baloković , John Barrett , Bradford A. Benson , Dan Bintley , Lindy Blackburn , Raymond Blundell , Wilfred Boland , Katherine L. Bouman , Geoffrey C. Bower , Hope Boyce , Michael Bremer , Christiaan D. Brinkerink , Roger Brissenden , Silke Britzen , Avery E. Broderick , Dominique Broguiere , Thomas Bronzwaer , Do-Young Byun , John E. Carlstrom , Andrew Chael , Chi-Kwan Chan , Shami Chatterjee , Koushik Chatterjee , Ming-Tang Chen , Yongjun Chen , Paul M. Chesler , Ilje Cho , Pierre Christian , John E. Conway , James M. Cordes , Thomas M. Crawford , Geoffrey B. Crew , Alejandro Cruz-Osorio , Yuzhu Cui , Jordy Davelaar , Mariafelicia de Laurentis , Roger Deane , Jessica Dempsey , Gregory Desvignes (1) , Jason Dexter , Sheperd S. Doeleman , Ralph P. Eatough , Heino Falcke , Joseph Farah , Vincent L. Fish , Ed Fomalont , H. Alyson Ford , Raquel Fraga-Encinas , William T. Freeman , Per Friberg , Christian M. Fromm , Antonio Fuentes , Peter Galison , Charles F. Gammie , Roberto García , Olivier Gentaz , Boris Georgiev , Ciriaco Goddi , Roman Gold , José L. Gómez , Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz , Minfeng Gu , Mark Gurwell , Kazuhiro Hada , Daryl Haggard , Michael H. Hecht , Ronald Hesper , Luis C. Ho , Paul Ho , Mareki Honma , Chih-Wei L. Huang , Lei Huang , David H. Hughes , Shiro Ikeda , Makoto Inoue , Sara Issaoun , David J. James , Buell T. Jannuzi , Michael Janssen , Britton Jeter , Wu Jiang , Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales , Michael D. Johnson , Svetlana Jorstad , Taehyun Jung , Mansour Karami , Ramesh Karuppusamy , Tomohisa Kawashima , Garrett K. Keating , Mark Kettenis , Dong-Jin Kim , Jae-Young Kim , Jongsoo Kim , Junhan Kim , Motoki Kino , Jun Yi Koay , Yutaro Kofuji , Patrick M. Koch , Shoko Koyama , Michael Kramer , Carsten Kramer , Thomas P. Krichbaum , Cheng-Yu Kuo , Tod R. Lauer , Sang-Sung Lee , Aviad Levis , Yan-Rong Li , Zhiyuan Li , Michael Lindqvist , Rocco Lico , Greg Lindahl , Jun Liu , Kuo Liu , Elisabetta Liuzzo , Wen-Ping Lo , Andrei P. Lobanov , Laurent Loinard , Colin Lonsdale , Ru-Sen Lu , Nicholas R. Macdonald , Jirong Mao , Nicola Marchili , Sera Markoff , Daniel P. Marrone , Alan P. Marscher , Iván Martí-Vidal , Satoki Matsushita , Lynn D. Matthews , Lia Medeiros , Karl M. Menten , Izumi Mizuno , Yosuke Mizuno , James M. Moran , Kotaro Moriyama , Monika Moscibrodzka , Cornelia Müller , Gibwa Musoke , Alejandro Mus Mejías , Daniel Michalik , Andrew Nadolski , Hiroshi Nagai , Neil M. Nagar , Masanori Nakamura , Ramesh Narayan , Gopal Narayanan , Iniyan Natarajan , Antonios Nathanail , Joey Neilsen , Roberto Neri , Chunchong Ni , Aristeidis Noutsos , Michael A. Nowak , Hiroki Okino , Héctor Olivares , Gisela N. Ortiz-León , Tomoaki Oyama , Feryal Özel , Daniel C. M. Palumbo , Jongho Park , Nimesh Patel , Ue-Li Pen , Dominic W. Pesce , Vincent Piétu , Richard Plambeck , Aleksandar Popstefanija , Oliver Porth , Felix M. Pötzl , Ben Prather , Jorge A. Preciado-López , Dimitrios Psaltis , Hung-Yi Pu , Venkatessh Ramakrishnan , Ramprasad Rao , Mark G. Rawlings , Alexander W. Raymond , Luciano Rezzolla , Angelo Ricarte , Bart Ripperda , Freek Roelofs , Alan Rogers , Eduardo Ros , Mel Rose , Arash Roshanineshat , Helge Rottmann , Alan L. Roy , Chet Ruszczyk , Kazi L. J. Rygl , Salvador Sánchez , David Sánchez-Arguelles , Mahito Sasada , Tuomas Savolainen , F. Peter Schloerb , Karl-Friedrich Schuster , Lijing Shao , Zhiqiang Shen , Des Small , Bong Won Sohn , Jason Soohoo , He Sun , Fumie Tazaki , Alexandra J. Tetarenko , Paul Tiede , Remo P. J. Tilanus , Michael Titus , Kenji Toma , Pablo Torne , Tyler Trent , Efthalia Traianou , Sascha Trippe , Ilse van Bemmel , Huib Jan van Langevelde , Daniel R. van Rossum , Jan Wagner , Derek Ward-Thompson , John Wardle , Jonathan Weintroub , Norbert Wex , Robert Wharton , Maciek Wielgus , George N. Wong , Qingwen Wu , Doosoo Yoon , André Young , Ken Young , Ziri Younsi , Feng Yuan , Ye-Fei Yuan , J. Anton Zensus , Guang-Yao Zhao , Shan-Shan Zhao
Kazunori Akiyama
  • Function : Author
Juan Carlos Algaba
  • Function : Author
Antxon Alberdi
  • Function : Author
Walter Alef
  • Function : Author
Richard Anantua
  • Function : Author
Keiichi Asada
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Azulay
  • Function : Author
Anne-Kathrin Baczko
  • Function : Author
David Ball
  • Function : Author
Mislav Baloković
  • Function : Author
John Barrett
  • Function : Author
Bradford A. Benson
  • Function : Author
Dan Bintley
  • Function : Author
Lindy Blackburn
  • Function : Author
Raymond Blundell
  • Function : Author
Wilfred Boland
  • Function : Author
Katherine L. Bouman
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Function : Author
Hope Boyce
  • Function : Author
Michael Bremer
  • Function : Author
Christiaan D. Brinkerink
  • Function : Author
Roger Brissenden
  • Function : Author
Silke Britzen
  • Function : Author
Avery E. Broderick
  • Function : Author
Dominique Broguiere
  • Function : Author
Thomas Bronzwaer
  • Function : Author
Do-Young Byun
  • Function : Author
John E. Carlstrom
  • Function : Author
Andrew Chael
  • Function : Author
Chi-Kwan Chan
  • Function : Author
Shami Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Koushik Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Ming-Tang Chen
  • Function : Author
Yongjun Chen
  • Function : Author
Paul M. Chesler
  • Function : Author
Ilje Cho
  • Function : Author
Pierre Christian
  • Function : Author
John E. Conway
  • Function : Author
James M. Cordes
  • Function : Author
Thomas M. Crawford
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey B. Crew
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Cruz-Osorio
  • Function : Author
Yuzhu Cui
  • Function : Author
Jordy Davelaar
  • Function : Author
Mariafelicia de Laurentis
  • Function : Author
Roger Deane
  • Function : Author
Jessica Dempsey
  • Function : Author
Jason Dexter
  • Function : Author
Sheperd S. Doeleman
  • Function : Author
Ralph P. Eatough
  • Function : Author
Heino Falcke
  • Function : Author
Joseph Farah
Vincent L. Fish
  • Function : Author
Ed Fomalont
  • Function : Author
H. Alyson Ford
  • Function : Author
Raquel Fraga-Encinas
  • Function : Author
William T. Freeman
  • Function : Author
Per Friberg
  • Function : Author
Christian M. Fromm
  • Function : Author
Antonio Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Peter Galison
  • Function : Author
Charles F. Gammie
  • Function : Author
Roberto García
  • Function : Author
Olivier Gentaz
  • Function : Author
Boris Georgiev
  • Function : Author
Ciriaco Goddi
  • Function : Author
Roman Gold
  • Function : Author
José L. Gómez
  • Function : Author
Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
  • Function : Author
Minfeng Gu
  • Function : Author
Mark Gurwell
  • Function : Author
Kazuhiro Hada
  • Function : Author
Daryl Haggard
  • Function : Author
Michael H. Hecht
  • Function : Author
Ronald Hesper
  • Function : Author
Luis C. Ho
  • Function : Author
Paul Ho
  • Function : Author
Mareki Honma
  • Function : Author
Chih-Wei L. Huang
  • Function : Author
Lei Huang
  • Function : Author
David H. Hughes
  • Function : Author
Shiro Ikeda
  • Function : Author
Makoto Inoue
  • Function : Author
Sara Issaoun
  • Function : Author
David J. James
  • Function : Author
Buell T. Jannuzi
  • Function : Author
Michael Janssen
  • Function : Author
Britton Jeter
  • Function : Author
Wu Jiang
  • Function : Author
Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales
  • Function : Author
Michael D. Johnson
  • Function : Author
Svetlana Jorstad
  • Function : Author
Taehyun Jung
  • Function : Author
Mansour Karami
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Karuppusamy
  • Function : Author
Tomohisa Kawashima
  • Function : Author
Garrett K. Keating
  • Function : Author
Mark Kettenis
  • Function : Author
Dong-Jin Kim
  • Function : Author
Jae-Young Kim
  • Function : Author
Jongsoo Kim
  • Function : Author
Junhan Kim
  • Function : Author
Motoki Kino
  • Function : Author
Jun Yi Koay
  • Function : Author
Yutaro Kofuji
  • Function : Author
Patrick M. Koch
  • Function : Author
Shoko Koyama
  • Function : Author
Michael Kramer
  • Function : Author
Carsten Kramer
  • Function : Author
Thomas P. Krichbaum
  • Function : Author
Cheng-Yu Kuo
  • Function : Author
Tod R. Lauer
  • Function : Author
Sang-Sung Lee
  • Function : Author
Aviad Levis
  • Function : Author
Yan-Rong Li
  • Function : Author
Zhiyuan Li
  • Function : Author
Michael Lindqvist
  • Function : Author
Rocco Lico
  • Function : Author
Greg Lindahl
  • Function : Author
Jun Liu
  • Function : Author
Kuo Liu
  • Function : Author
Elisabetta Liuzzo
  • Function : Author
Wen-Ping Lo
  • Function : Author
Andrei P. Lobanov
  • Function : Author
Laurent Loinard
  • Function : Author
Colin Lonsdale
  • Function : Author
Ru-Sen Lu
  • Function : Author
Nicholas R. Macdonald
  • Function : Author
Jirong Mao
  • Function : Author
Nicola Marchili
  • Function : Author
Sera Markoff
  • Function : Author
Daniel P. Marrone
  • Function : Author
Alan P. Marscher
  • Function : Author
Iván Martí-Vidal
  • Function : Author
Satoki Matsushita
  • Function : Author
Lynn D. Matthews
  • Function : Author
Lia Medeiros
  • Function : Author
Karl M. Menten
  • Function : Author
Izumi Mizuno
  • Function : Author
Yosuke Mizuno
  • Function : Author
James M. Moran
  • Function : Author
Kotaro Moriyama
  • Function : Author
Monika Moscibrodzka
  • Function : Author
Cornelia Müller
  • Function : Author
Gibwa Musoke
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Mus Mejías
  • Function : Author
Daniel Michalik
  • Function : Author
Andrew Nadolski
  • Function : Author
Hiroshi Nagai
  • Function : Author
Neil M. Nagar
  • Function : Author
Masanori Nakamura
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Narayan
  • Function : Author
Gopal Narayanan
  • Function : Author
Iniyan Natarajan
  • Function : Author
Antonios Nathanail
  • Function : Author
Joey Neilsen
  • Function : Author
Roberto Neri
  • Function : Author
Chunchong Ni
  • Function : Author
Aristeidis Noutsos
  • Function : Author
Michael A. Nowak
  • Function : Author
Hiroki Okino
  • Function : Author
Héctor Olivares
  • Function : Author
Gisela N. Ortiz-León
  • Function : Author
Tomoaki Oyama
  • Function : Author
Feryal Özel
  • Function : Author
Daniel C. M. Palumbo
  • Function : Author
Jongho Park
  • Function : Author
Nimesh Patel
  • Function : Author
Ue-Li Pen
  • Function : Author
Dominic W. Pesce
  • Function : Author
Vincent Piétu
  • Function : Author
Richard Plambeck
  • Function : Author
Aleksandar Popstefanija
  • Function : Author
Oliver Porth
  • Function : Author
Felix M. Pötzl
  • Function : Author
Ben Prather
  • Function : Author
Jorge A. Preciado-López
  • Function : Author
Dimitrios Psaltis
  • Function : Author
Hung-Yi Pu
  • Function : Author
Venkatessh Ramakrishnan
  • Function : Author
Ramprasad Rao
  • Function : Author
Mark G. Rawlings
  • Function : Author
Alexander W. Raymond
  • Function : Author
Luciano Rezzolla
  • Function : Author
Angelo Ricarte
  • Function : Author
Bart Ripperda
  • Function : Author
Freek Roelofs
  • Function : Author
Alan Rogers
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Ros
  • Function : Author
Mel Rose
  • Function : Author
Arash Roshanineshat
  • Function : Author
Helge Rottmann
  • Function : Author
Alan L. Roy
  • Function : Author
Chet Ruszczyk
  • Function : Author
Kazi L. J. Rygl
  • Function : Author
Salvador Sánchez
  • Function : Author
David Sánchez-Arguelles
  • Function : Author
Mahito Sasada
  • Function : Author
Tuomas Savolainen
  • Function : Author
F. Peter Schloerb
  • Function : Author
Karl-Friedrich Schuster
  • Function : Author
Lijing Shao
  • Function : Author
Zhiqiang Shen
  • Function : Author
Des Small
  • Function : Author
Bong Won Sohn
  • Function : Author
Jason Soohoo
  • Function : Author
He Sun
  • Function : Author
Fumie Tazaki
  • Function : Author
Alexandra J. Tetarenko
  • Function : Author
Paul Tiede
  • Function : Author
Remo P. J. Tilanus
  • Function : Author
Michael Titus
  • Function : Author
Kenji Toma
  • Function : Author
Pablo Torne
  • Function : Author
Tyler Trent
  • Function : Author
Efthalia Traianou
  • Function : Author
Sascha Trippe
  • Function : Author
Ilse van Bemmel
  • Function : Author
Huib Jan van Langevelde
  • Function : Author
Daniel R. van Rossum
  • Function : Author
Jan Wagner
  • Function : Author
Derek Ward-Thompson
  • Function : Author
John Wardle
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Weintroub
  • Function : Author
Norbert Wex
  • Function : Author
Robert Wharton
  • Function : Author
Maciek Wielgus
  • Function : Author
George N. Wong
  • Function : Author
Qingwen Wu
  • Function : Author
Doosoo Yoon
  • Function : Author
André Young
  • Function : Author
Ken Young
  • Function : Author
Ziri Younsi
  • Function : Author
Feng Yuan
  • Function : Author
Ye-Fei Yuan
  • Function : Author
J. Anton Zensus
  • Function : Author
Guang-Yao Zhao
  • Function : Author
Shan-Shan Zhao
  • Function : Author

Abstract

In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a compact asymmetric ring-like source morphology. This structure originates from synchrotron emission produced by relativistic plasma located in the immediate vicinity of the black hole. Here we present the corresponding linear-polarimetric EHT images of the center of M87. We find that only a part of the ring is significantly polarized. The resolved fractional linear polarization has a maximum located in the southwest part of the ring, where it rises to the level of ∼15%. The polarization position angles are arranged in a nearly azimuthal pattern. We perform quantitative measurements of relevant polarimetric properties of the compact emission and find evidence for the temporal evolution of the polarized source structure over one week of EHT observations. The details of the polarimetric data reduction and calibration methodology are provided. We carry out the data analysis using multiple independent imaging and modeling techniques, each of which is validated against a suite of synthetic data sets. The gross polarimetric structure and its apparent evolution with time are insensitive to the method used to reconstruct the image. These polarimetric images carry information about the structure of the magnetic fields responsible for the synchrotron emission. Their physical interpretation is discussed in an accompanying publication.
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insu-03713798 , version 1 (05-07-2022)

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Kazunori Akiyama, Juan Carlos Algaba, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Richard Anantua, et al.. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2021, 910, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/abe71d⟩. ⟨insu-03713798⟩
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