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Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Year : 2022

An Isolated Stellar-mass Black Hole Detected through Astrometric Microlensing

Kailash C. Sahu , Jay Anderson , Stefano Casertano , Howard E. Bond , Andrzej Udalski , Martin Dominik , Annalisa Calamida , Andrea Bellini , Thomas M. Brown , Marina Rejkuba , Varun Bajaj , Noé Kains , Henry C. Ferguson , Chris L. Fryer , Philip Yock , Przemek Mróz , Szymon Kozłowski , Paweł Pietrukowicz , Radek Poleski , Jan Skowron , Igor Soszyński , Michał K. Szymański , Krzysztof Ulaczyk , Łukasz Wyrzykowski , Richard K. Barry , David P. Bennett , Ian A. Bond , Yuki Hirao , Stela Ishitani Silva , Iona Kondo , Naoki Koshimoto , Clément Ranc , Nicholas J. Rattenbury , Takahiro Sumi , Daisuke Suzuki , Paul J. Tristram , Aikaterini Vandorou , Jean-Philippe Beaulieu , Jean-Baptiste Marquette (1) , Andrew Cole , Pascal Fouqué (2) , Kym Hill , Stefan Dieters , Christian Coutures (3) , Dijana Dominis-Prester , Clara Bennett , Etienne Bachelet , John Menzies , Michael Albrow , Karen Pollard , Andrew Gould , Jennifer C. Yee , William Allen , Leonardo A. Almeida , Grant Christie , John Drummond , Avishay Gal-Yam , Evgeny Gorbikov , Francisco Jablonski , Chung-Uk Lee , Dan Maoz , Ilan Manulis , Jennie Mccormick , Tim Natusch , Richard W. Pogge , Yossi Shvartzvald , Uffe G. Jørgensen , Khalid A. Alsubai , Michael I. Andersen , Valerio Bozza , Sebastiano Calchi Novati , Martin Burgdorf , Tobias C. Hinse , Markus Hundertmark , Tim-Oliver Husser , Eamonn Kerins , Penelope Longa-Peña , Luigi Mancini , Matthew Penny , Sohrab Rahvar , Davide Ricci , Sedighe Sajadian , Jesper Skottfelt , Colin Snodgrass , John Southworth , Jeremy Tregloan-Reed , Joachim Wambsganss , Olivier Wertz , Yiannis Tsapras , Rachel A. Street , D. M. Bramich , Keith Horne , Iain A. Steele
Kailash C. Sahu
  • Function : Author
Jay Anderson
  • Function : Author
Stefano Casertano
  • Function : Author
Howard E. Bond
  • Function : Author
Andrzej Udalski
  • Function : Author
Martin Dominik
  • Function : Author
Annalisa Calamida
  • Function : Author
Andrea Bellini
  • Function : Author
Thomas M. Brown
  • Function : Author
Marina Rejkuba
  • Function : Author
Varun Bajaj
  • Function : Author
Noé Kains
  • Function : Author
Henry C. Ferguson
  • Function : Author
Chris L. Fryer
  • Function : Author
Philip Yock
  • Function : Author
Przemek Mróz
  • Function : Author
Szymon Kozłowski
  • Function : Author
Paweł Pietrukowicz
  • Function : Author
Radek Poleski
  • Function : Author
Jan Skowron
  • Function : Author
Igor Soszyński
  • Function : Author
Michał K. Szymański
  • Function : Author
Krzysztof Ulaczyk
  • Function : Author
Łukasz Wyrzykowski
  • Function : Author
Richard K. Barry
  • Function : Author
David P. Bennett
  • Function : Author
Ian A. Bond
  • Function : Author
Yuki Hirao
  • Function : Author
Stela Ishitani Silva
  • Function : Author
Iona Kondo
  • Function : Author
Naoki Koshimoto
  • Function : Author
Clément Ranc
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 1181264
  • IdHAL : cr
Nicholas J. Rattenbury
  • Function : Author
Takahiro Sumi
  • Function : Author
Daisuke Suzuki
  • Function : Author
Paul J. Tristram
  • Function : Author
Aikaterini Vandorou
  • Function : Author
Jean-Philippe Beaulieu
  • Function : Author
Andrew Cole
  • Function : Author
Kym Hill
  • Function : Author
Stefan Dieters
  • Function : Author
Dijana Dominis-Prester
  • Function : Author
Clara Bennett
  • Function : Author
Etienne Bachelet
  • Function : Author
John Menzies
  • Function : Author
Michael Albrow
  • Function : Author
Karen Pollard
  • Function : Author
Andrew Gould
  • Function : Author
Jennifer C. Yee
  • Function : Author
William Allen
  • Function : Author
Leonardo A. Almeida
  • Function : Author
Grant Christie
  • Function : Author
John Drummond
  • Function : Author
Avishay Gal-Yam
  • Function : Author
Evgeny Gorbikov
  • Function : Author
Francisco Jablonski
  • Function : Author
Chung-Uk Lee
  • Function : Author
Dan Maoz
  • Function : Author
Ilan Manulis
  • Function : Author
Jennie Mccormick
  • Function : Author
Tim Natusch
  • Function : Author
Richard W. Pogge
  • Function : Author
Yossi Shvartzvald
  • Function : Author
Uffe G. Jørgensen
  • Function : Author
Khalid A. Alsubai
  • Function : Author
Michael I. Andersen
  • Function : Author
Valerio Bozza
  • Function : Author
Sebastiano Calchi Novati
  • Function : Author
Martin Burgdorf
  • Function : Author
Tobias C. Hinse
  • Function : Author
Markus Hundertmark
  • Function : Author
Tim-Oliver Husser
  • Function : Author
Eamonn Kerins
  • Function : Author
Penelope Longa-Peña
  • Function : Author
Luigi Mancini
  • Function : Author
Matthew Penny
  • Function : Author
Sohrab Rahvar
  • Function : Author
Davide Ricci
  • Function : Author
Sedighe Sajadian
  • Function : Author
Jesper Skottfelt
  • Function : Author
Colin Snodgrass
  • Function : Author
John Southworth
  • Function : Author
Jeremy Tregloan-Reed
  • Function : Author
Joachim Wambsganss
  • Function : Author
Olivier Wertz
  • Function : Author
Yiannis Tsapras
  • Function : Author
Rachel A. Street
  • Function : Author
D. M. Bramich
  • Function : Author
Keith Horne
  • Function : Author
Iain A. Steele
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We report the first unambiguous detection and mass measurement of an isolated stellar-mass black hole (BH). We used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to carry out precise astrometry of the source star of the long-duration (t E ≃ 270 days), high-magnification microlensing event MOA-2011-BLG-191/OGLE-2011-BLG-0462 (hereafter designated as MOA-11-191/OGLE-11-462), in the direction of the Galactic bulge. HST imaging, conducted at eight epochs over an interval of 6 yr, reveals a clear relativistic astrometric deflection of the background star's apparent position. Ground-based photometry of MOA-11-191/OGLE-11-462 shows a parallactic signature of the effect of Earth's motion on the microlensing light curve. Combining the HST astrometry with the ground-based light curve and the derived parallax, we obtain a lens mass of 7.1 ± 1.3 M and a distance of 1.58 ± 0.18 kpc. We show that the lens emits no detectable light, which, along with having a mass higher than is possible for a white dwarf or neutron star, confirms its BH nature. Our analysis also provides an absolute proper motion for the BH. The proper motion is offset from the mean motion of Galactic disk stars at similar distances by an amount corresponding to a transverse space velocity of ~45 km s-1, suggesting that the BH received a "natal kick" from its supernova explosion. Previous mass determinations for stellar-mass BHs have come from radial velocity measurements of Galactic X-ray binaries and from gravitational radiation emitted by merging BHs in binary systems in external galaxies. Our mass measurement is the first for an isolated stellar-mass BH using any technique. *This research is based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
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insu-03748250 , version 1 (09-08-2022)

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Kailash C. Sahu, Jay Anderson, Stefano Casertano, Howard E. Bond, Andrzej Udalski, et al.. An Isolated Stellar-mass Black Hole Detected through Astrometric Microlensing. The Astrophysical Journal, 2022, 933, ⟨10.3847/1538-4357/ac739e⟩. ⟨insu-03748250⟩
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