Gas accretion onto Jupiter mass planets in discs with laminar accretion flows - INSU - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers Access content directly
Journal Articles Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A Year : 2023

Gas accretion onto Jupiter mass planets in discs with laminar accretion flows

R. P. Nelson
  • Function : Author
E. Lega
  • Function : Author

Abstract

Context. Numerous studies have shown that a gap-forming Jovian mass planet embedded in a protoplanetary disc, in which a turbulent viscosity operates, can accrete gas efficiently through the gap, and for typical parameters it doubles its mass in ~0.1 Myr. The planet also migrates inwards on a timescale that is closely related to the local viscous evolution timescale, which is also typically 0.1 Myr. These timescales are short compared to protoplanetary disc lifetimes, and raise questions about the origins of the cold gas giant exoplanets that have been discovered in abundance. It is understood that protoplanetary discs are unlikely to be globally turbulent, and instead they may launch magnetised winds such that accretion towards the star occurs in laminar accretion flows located in narrow layers near the surfaces of the disc.
Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the rate at which gas accretes onto Jovian mass planets that are embedded in layered protoplanetary discs, and to compare the results with those obtained for viscous models.
Methods: We use 3D hydrodynamical simulations of planets embedded in protoplanetary discs, in which a constant radial mass flux towards the star of ṁ = 10−8 M yr−1 is sustained. We consider a classical viscous α disc model, and also models in which an external torque is applied in narrow surface layers to mimic the effects of a magnetised wind. The accreting layers have a variety of depths, as parameterised by their column densities ΣA, and we consider values of ΣA in the range 0.1−10 g cm−2.
Results: The viscous disc model gives results in agreement with previous studies. In accord with our recent work that examines the migration of Jovian mass planets in layered models, we find the accretion rate onto the planet in the layered models crucially depends on the ability of the planet to block the wind-induced mass flow towards the star. For ΣA = 10 g cm−2, the planet torque can block the mass flow in disc, accretion onto the planet is slow, and a mass doubling time of 10 Myr is obtained. For ΣA = 0.1 g cm−2, the flow is not blocked, accretion is fast, and the mass doubling time is 0.2 Myr.
Conclusions: Our results show that although the radial mass flow through the layered disc models is always 10−8 M yr−1, adopting different values of ΣA leads to very different gas accretion rates onto embedded gas giant planets.
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insu-04004074 , version 1 (24-02-2023)

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R. P. Nelson, E. Lega, A. Morbidelli. Gas accretion onto Jupiter mass planets in discs with laminar accretion flows. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, 2023, 670, ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202244885⟩. ⟨insu-04004074⟩
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