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Journal Articles Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Year : 2017

A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

J. S. Dunlop
  • Function : Author
R. J. Mclure
  • Function : Author
A. D. Biggs
  • Function : Author
J. E. Geach
  • Function : Author
M. J. Michałowski
  • Function : Author
R. J. Ivison
  • Function : Author
W. Rujopakarn
  • Function : Author
E. van Kampen
  • Function : Author
A. Kirkpatrick
  • Function : Author
A. Pope
  • Function : Author
D. Scott
  • Function : Author
A. M. Swinbank
  • Function : Author
T. A. Targett
  • Function : Author
I. Aretxaga
  • Function : Author
J. E. Austermann
  • Function : Author
P. N. Best
  • Function : Author
V. A. Bruce
  • Function : Author
E. L. Chapin
  • Function : Author
M. Cirasuolo
  • Function : Author
K. Coppin
  • Function : Author
R. S. Ellis
  • Function : Author
S. L. Finkelstein
  • Function : Author
C. C. Hayward
  • Function : Author
D. H. Hughes
  • Function : Author
E. Ibar
  • Function : Author
P. Jagannathan
  • Function : Author
S. Khochfar
  • Function : Author
M. P. Koprowski
  • Function : Author
D. Narayanan
  • Function : Author
K. Nyland
  • Function : Author
C. Papovich
  • Function : Author
J. A. Peacock
  • Function : Author
G. H. Rieke
  • Function : Author
B. Robertson
  • Function : Author
T. Vernstrom
  • Function : Author
P. P. van Der Werf
  • Function : Author
G. W. Wilson
  • Function : Author
M. Yun
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present the results of the first, deep Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) imaging covering the full ≃4.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) imaged with Wide Field Camera 3/IR on HST. Using a 45-pointing mosaic, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3-mm image reaching σ1.3 ≃ 35 μJy, at a resolution of ≃0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ≃50 > 3.5σ peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with S1.3 > 120 μJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts ( = 2.15). Due to the unparalleled supporting data, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-redshift Universe; indeed at z ≥ 2 our ALMA sample contains seven of the nine galaxies in the HUDF with M* ≥ 2 × 1010 M, and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, reflecting the rapid drop-off of high-mass galaxies with increasing redshift. The detections, coupled with stacking, allow us to probe the redshift/mass distribution of the 1.3-mm background down to S1.3 ≃ 10 μJy. We find strong evidence for a steep star-forming 'main sequence' at z ≃ 2, with SFR ∝M* and a mean specific SFR ≃ 2.2 Gyr-1. Moreover, we find that ≃85 per cent of total star formation at z ≃ 2 is enshrouded in dust, with ≃65 per cent of all star formation at this epoch occurring in high-mass galaxies (M* > 2 × 1010 M), for which the average obscured:unobscured SF ratio is ≃200. Finally, we revisit the cosmic evolution of SFR density; we find this peaks at z ≃ 2.5, and that the star-forming Universe transits from primarily unobscured to primarily obscured at z ≃ 4.
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Dates and versions

insu-03985471 , version 1 (16-02-2023)

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J. S. Dunlop, R. J. Mclure, A. D. Biggs, J. E. Geach, M. J. Michałowski, et al.. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2017, 466, pp.861-883. ⟨10.1093/mnras/stw3088⟩. ⟨insu-03985471⟩
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